//-\ ]E i n d e x

notes on projects by m.d.
categories: arctic | cryptoart | radio | internet | art | crypto | debian | laser | physics | game | radioactive entropy | funk | ghostradio | hades | informationtheory | linux | linuxaudio | math | neuralnetworks noise | nonhuman | notes |particlephysics | rng |softwaredefinedradio | tools | underinfluence | vlf movie | book


das globale bewusstsein http://noosphere.princeton.edu/ jaron lanier http://www.faz.net/aktuell/feuilleton/debatten/netzkultur-warum-die-zukunft-uns-noch-braucht-1907474.html entropy noise


#linux #sec [1]This is derived from the SSG provided in https://github.com/ComplianceAsCode/content SCAP Security Guide Title Solution Ensure /home Located On Separate Partition If user home directories will be stored locally, create a separate partition for /home at installation time (or migrate it later using LVM). If /home will be mounted from another system such as an NFS server, then creating a separate partition is not necessary at installation time, and the mountpoint can instead be configured later. Ensure /tmp Located On Separate Partition The /tmp directory is a world-writable directory used for temporary file storage. Ensure it has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM. Ensure /var Located On Separate Partition The /var directory is used by daemons and other system services to store frequently-changing data. Ensure that /var has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM. Ensure /var/log Located On Separate Partition System logs are stored in the /var/log directory. Ensure that /var/log has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM. Ensure /var/log/audit Located On Separate Partition Audit logs are stored in the /var/log/audit directory. Ensure that /var/log/audit has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM. Make absolutely certain that it is large enough to store all audit logs that will be created by the auditing daemon. Ensure the audit Subsystem is installed The audit package should be installed. Enable auditd serivce The auditd service is an essential userspace component of the Linux Auditing System, as it is responsible for writing audit records to disk. The auditd service can be enabled with the following command: $ sudo systemctl enable auditd.service Ensure rsyslog is Installed Rsyslog is installed by default. The rsyslog package can be installed with the following command: $ apt-get install rsyslog Enable rsyslog service The rsyslog service provides syslog-style logging by default on Debian 10. The rsyslog service can be enabled with the following command: $ sudo systemctl enable rsyslog.service Ensure Log Files Are Owned By Appropriate Group The group-owner of all log files written by rsyslog should be adm. These log files are determined by the second part of each Rule line in /etc/rsyslog.conf and typically all appear in /var/log. For each log file LOGFILE referenced in /etc/rsyslog.conf, run the following command to inspect the file's group owner: $ ls -l LOGFILE If the owner is not adm, run the following command to correct this: $ sudo chgrp adm LOGFILE Ensure Log Files Are Owned By Appropriate User The owner of all log files written by rsyslog should be adm. These log files are determined by the second part of each Rule line in /etc/rsyslog.conf and typically all appear in /var/log. For each log file LOGFILE referenced in /etc/rsyslog.conf, run the following command to inspect the file's owner: $ ls -l LOGFILE If the owner is not adm, run the following command to correct this: $ sudo chown adm LOGFILE Ensure System Log Files Have Correct Permissions The file permissions for all log files written by rsyslog should be set to 600, or more restrictive. These log files are determined by the second part of each Rule line in /etc/rsyslog.conf and typically all appear in /var/log. For each log file LOGFILE referenced in /etc/rsyslog.conf, run the following command to inspect the file's permissions: $ ls -l LOGFILE If the permissions are not 600 or more restrictive, run the following command to correct this: $ sudo chmod 0600 LOGFILE" Ensure Logrorate Runs Periodically The logrotate utility allows for the automatic rotation of log files. The frequency of rotation is specified in /etc/logrotate.conf, which triggers a cron task. To configure logrotate to run daily, add or correct the following line in /etc/logrotate.conf: # rotate log files frequency daily Verify that local System.map file (if exists) is readable only by root Files containing sensitive informations should be protected by restrictive permissions. Most of the time, there is no need that these files need to be read by any non-root user To properly set the permissions of /boot/System.map-*, run the command: $ sudo chmod 0600 /boot/System.map-* Enable Kernel Parameter to Enforce DAC on Hardlinks To set the runtime status of the fs.protected_hardlinks kernel parameter, run the following command: $ sudo sysctl -w fs.protected_hardlinks=1 To make sure that the setting is persistent, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d: fs.protected_hardlinks = 1 Enable Kernel Parameter to Enforce DAC on Symlinks To set the runtime status of the fs.protected_symlinks kernel parameter, run the following command: $ sudo sysctl -w fs.protected_symlinks=1 To make sure that the setting is persistent, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d: fs.protected_symlinks = 1 Verify Group Who Owns group file To properly set the group owner of /etc/group, run the command: $ sudo chgrp root /etc/group Verify Group Who Owns gshadow file To properly set the group owner of /etc/gshadow, run the command: $ sudo chgrp shadow /etc/gshadow Verify Group who owns passwd file To properly set the group owner of /etc/passwd, run the command: $ sudo chgrp root /etc/passwd Verify Group who owns shadow file To properly set the group owner of /etc/shadow, run the command: $ sudo chgrp shadow /etc/shadow Verify User Who Owns group To properly set the owner of /etc/group, run the command: $ sudo chown root /etc/group Verify User Who Owns gshadow To properly set the owner of /etc/gshadow, run the command: $ sudo chown root /etc/gshadow Verify User Who Owns passwd To properly set the owner of /etc/passwd, run the command: $ sudo chown root /etc/passwd Verify User Who Owns shadow To properly set the owner of /etc/shadow, run the command: $ sudo chown root /etc/shadow Verify permissions on group file To properly set the permissions of /etc/passwd, run the command: $ sudo chmod 0644 /etc/passwd Verify permissions on gshadow To properly set the permissions of /etc/gshadow, run the command: $ sudo chmod 0640 /etc/gshadow Verify permissions on passwd To properly set the permissions of /etc/passwd, run the command: $ sudo chmod 0644 /etc/passwd Verify permissions on shadow To properly set the permissions of /etc/shadow, run the command: $ sudo chmod 0640 /etc/shadow Disable Core Dumps for SUID programs To set the runtime status of the fs.suid_dumpable kernel parameter, run the following command: $ sudo sysctl -w fs.suid_dumpable=0 To make sure that the setting is persistent, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d: fs.suid_dumpable = 0 Enable Randomized Layout of Virtual Address Space To set the runtime status of the kernel.randomize_va_space kernel parameter, run the following command: $ sudo sysctl -w kernel.randomize_va_space=2 To make sure that the setting is persistent, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d: kernel.randomize_va_space = 2 Install the cron sevice The Cron service should be installed. enable cron service The crond service is used to execute commands at preconfigured times. It is required by almost all systems to perform necessary maintenance tasks, such as notifying root of system activity. The cron service can be enabled with the following command: $ sudo systemctl enable cron.service Uninstall the inet-based telnet server The inet-based telnet daemon should be uninstalled. Uninstall the nis package The support for Yellowpages should not be installed unless it is required. Uninstall the ntpdate package ntpdate is a historical ntp synchronization client for unixes. It sould be uninstalled. Uninstall the ssl compliant telnet server The telnet daemon, even with ssl support, should be uninstalled. Uninstall the telnet server The telnet daemon should be uninstalled. Install the ntp service The ntpd service should be installed. Enable the NTP Daemon The ntpd service can be enabled with the following command: $ sudo systemctl enable ntpd.service Allow only SSH protocol 2 Only SSH protocol version 2 connections should be permitted. The default setting in /etc/ssh/sshd_config is correct, and can be verified by ensuring that the following line appears: Protocol 2 Disable SSH access via empty passwords Disallow SSH login with empty passwords. The default SSH configuration disables logins with empty passwords. The appropriate configuration is used if no value is set for PermitEmptyPasswords. To explicitly disallow SSH login from accounts with empty passwords, add or correct the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config: PermitEmptyPasswords no Any accounts with empty passwords should be disabled immediately, and PAM configuration should prevent users from being able to assign themselves empty passwords. Disable SSH root login The root user should never be allowed to login to a system directly over a network. To disable root login via SSH, add or correct the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config: PermitRootLogin no Set SSH idle timout interval SSH allows administrators to set an idle timeout interval. After this interval has passed, the idle user will be automatically logged out. To set an idle timeout interval, edit the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config as follows: ClientAliveInterval 300 The timeout interval is given in seconds. For example, have a timeout of 10 minutes, set interval to 600. If a shorter timeout has already been set for the login shell, that value will preempt any SSH setting made in /etc/ssh/sshd_config. Keep in mind that some processes may stop SSH from correctly detecting that the user is idle. Set SSH client alive count max to zero The SSH server sends at most ClientAliveCountMax messages during a SSH session and waits for a response from the SSH client. The option ClientAliveInterval configures timeout after each ClientAliveCountMax message. If the SSH server does not receive a response from the client, then the connection is considered idle and terminated. To ensure the SSH idle timeout occurs precisely when the ClientAliveInterval is set, set the ClientAliveCountMax to value of 0 in /etc/ssh/sshd_config: References 1. https://github.com/ComplianceAsCode/content



ganz interessanter produktionsprozess, mit ueberkritischer trocknung.





https://www.fhi.ox.ac.uk/ https://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/faculty/vinge/misc/singularity.html informationtheory


https://github.com/antirez/dump1090 linux funk radio


  enemy, destroy (human) (destructive) host, breed (alien) (constructive) logic hades


http://www.physics.otago.ac.nz/space/AARDDVARK_pictures.htm   http://www.physics.otago.ac.nz/space/AARDDVARK_homepage.htm radio vlf


http://www.dl2jas.com/antennen/cb_balkon/cb_balkon.html funk


app1 linux | linux audio


[image] source: http://2oqz471sa19h3vbwa53m33yj.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/arctic-domination-1070.jpg arctic


. encounters on the passage - inuit meet the explorers - dorothy harley eber . in sturm und eis - hans memminger . eastern arctic kayaks - heath and arima . life among the quallunaat - mini aodla freeman . My life among the Eskimos: Baffinland journeys in the years 1909 to 1911 - bernhard hantzsch . Ross, J., & Ross, J. C. (1835). Narrative of a second voyage in search of a north-west passage, and of a residence in the Arctic regions during the years 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833 . far field - marsching and polli . eistau - ilija trojanow . the rifles - william t vollmann arctic


the establishment of alert station http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic43-1-21.pdf Arctic43-1-21 arctic


isachsen https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isachsen alert station https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CFS_Alert eureka https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eureka,_Nunavut arctic


neumayer station https://www.awi.de/expedition/stationen/neumayer-station-iii/webcam.html admunsen scott station https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/obop/spo/livecamera.html https://seaice.alaska.edu/gi/observatories/barrow_webcam/ http://www.summitcamp.org/status/webcam/ https://data.npolar.no/dataset/9fd6dae0-863b-11e2-8036-005056ad0004 arctic internet


parec --format=s16le --channels=1 --latency-msec=5 | ./baudline -stdin linuxaudio tools


  jede zahl eine farbe > 1 frame //webcolors jede 3 zahlen eine farbe rgb > 1 frame //rgb farbraum noise entropy




term: hadesarchitektur hades movie



underinfluence art


code von franzi imagemagick #!/usr/bin/perl use Image::Magick; $zaehler = 2; $spalte = 0; $zeile = 0; $e = 1; for ($i = 0; $i <= 255; $i++) { my $image = Image::Magick->new; $image->Set(size=>'256x256'); $image->ReadImage('xc:white'); for ($sp = 0; $sp <= 256*256; $sp++) { if ($spalte == 256) { $spalte = 0; # AN DEN ANFANG ZURUECK $zeile = $zeile + 1; # EINE ZEILE RUNTER # print " Zeile $zeile / 256 \t Nr. $i / 255 \t $farbe \n"; } # $e1=1/$e; # $e=1/(1+$e1); $e=1/$zaehler; # print "$e\t1/$zaehler\n"; $rot=substr($e,8,2); $gruen=substr($e,10,2); $blau=substr($e,12,2); $farbe = "#".$rot.$gruen.$blau; $image->Draw(primitive=>'point', fill=>"$farbe", points=>"$zeile,$spalte"); $spalte = $spalte + 1; $zaehler = $zaehler + 1; # print ">>>$e>$rot--$gruen--$blau>$farbe>>$spalte,$zeile\n"; } $zeile = 0; #$image->display(); $image->Write("image_1n65k$i.jpg"); print "image_65k$i.jpg\n"; } ghostradio linux


inxi -b inxi -pluFxxrm for file in *.png; do convert $file -rotate 90 rotated-$file; done for file in *; do convert $file -resize x1440 resized-$file; done bc: scale=4 linux


ffmpeg -i %d.jpg -vcodec rawvideo preview.avi #linux


  http://mspace.lib.umanitoba.ca/jspui/handle/1993/24012   http://www.welt.de/wissenschaft/article119998227/Verschluesselt-wird-kuenftig-mit-Quantenphysik.html   from ur crypto


apt remove timidity

loest das soundproblem mit pulsaudio / no cards found

trackpoint beschleunigung

xinput --list --short
xinput --list-props "Elan TrackPoint"
xinput --set-prop 10 301 0.8000

schoen schnell fuer 2.5k displays, 1.0 ist max

debian linux tools


https://criticalengineering.org/projects/deep-sweep/ linux art crypto


der quantenphysik


erklaerung computer

particlephysics informationtheory


Do you have a radio? Tune it in between stations. Music is highly reproducible, and although DJ's may blabber at random they may be recorded (so reproducible) and any radio station in general is duplicated with care in the whole area of broadcast. Do not use the FM tuner of your radio, because FM is based on a beacon signal with the sounds wrapped around it -- in other words, the radio can recognise absence of a station and refuse to tune in, or adapt tuning to a nearby station. You want to use the AM tuner, which does not have these problems.

the best random number generators use radioactive decay as an entropy source

gpg definition: http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4880 das ist schon mal ein guter weg http://sublimated.wordpress.com/2007/08/28/not-enough-random-bytes-available/ /dev/random wird verwendet maex@bro:~$ cat /dev/random )����i���1����9�Ѭ$SLu�8y�;��_�M�>��D�HUb�1�\224bQ�?����\224���A|�?d������\206��\214�a�����.� +��Dc��@ l���o�g� ��\220�@�����,�I@���n�(b#�m���W��T M_��ԧ�'�tW�~    k��+9'�'?�so��.���\223���L��_U{-������^�v��KlR-��q��\212������^C maex@bro:~$ entropy noise rng




buch: The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood by James Gleick

math informationtheory


https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Induktion_%28Philosophie%29 https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vollst%C3%A4ndige_Induktion und jetzt erst mal alice im wunderland lesen.       https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deduktion     math informationtheory


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_physics   informationtheory


OKOK, general update, the lv21a isnt a distance sensor, although the lva display measures quite accurate the distance, BUT, the control output is just a switch, 11V 0V nothing inbetween. fails this is the distance sensor: manual: LV_H100_300_man.15391105 general manual: lv_general_kb circuit description between npn and pnp / lv21a and lv21ap: http://www.omron-ap.com/FAQ/FAQ02285/index.asp this is the laser diode switch manual: keyence_pz101_datasheet laser tools


http://www.leuze.de/products/los/mess/ods96/ods96a_en.html they ve serial and analog output laser tools


from the book exploring quantum pyhsics,..wiley   10:48 <@ant> the random number function in your computer produces only a random looking sequence ofnumbers through a specific algorithm. if you know the algoritm and the position in thesequence, you can accurately predict what will be the next number in the sequence. whilethis may be good enough for your home computer games,.... entropy, physics


wget https://yt-dl.org/downloads/latest/youtube-dl linux tools


https://futureoflife.org/2021/03/31/joscha-bach-and-anthony-aguirre-on-digital-physics-and-moving-towards-beneficial-futures/ physics digital informationtheory nonhuman


teilweise arktisch- filme uebers und mit dem eis https://samuelintheclouds.com/ encounters at the end of the world https://www.imdb.com/title/tt1093824/ kaira http://kaira.sgo.fi/2014/04/kaira-film.html Atanarjuat: The Fast Runner https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0285441/ touching the void https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0379557/ Gasherbrum Der Leuchtende Berg - 1984 - Werner Herzog the thing https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0084787/ the terror https://www.imdb.com/title/tt2708480/episodes?season=1 #movie


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3ijjHZHNIbU crypto informationtheory


exiftool -all= image.jpg
linux tools


as i assumed, that public cryptography is broken, because of backdoors and or malicious code, theres a article about rdrand now online http://arstechnica.com/security/2013/12/we-cannot-trust-intel-and-vias-chip-based-crypto-freebsd-developers-say/ in intel we trust crypto informationtheory


http://channel9.msdn.com/Events/GoingNative/2013/rand-Considered-Harmful crypto informationtheory


http://relativitygame.com/#screenshots game


"and then i was dead, and i didnt know what to do" game logic


[image] new antenna developed 11 2014 lambda1/4 antenna in the center (probably with black cable) ghostradio entropy cryptoart


maex@:~/ghostradio/code$ more ghostradio.py 
import numpy as np
import cv2
import os, sys, struct, shutil, time

print "configuring video dev"
# 1 = composite 0 = tuner usw
os.system("v4l2-ctl -i 1")

cap = cv2.VideoCapture(0)

ret = cap.set(3,720) 
ret = cap.set(4,576)

timestr = time.strftime("%Y%m%d-%H%M%S")

grname = "gr-random-bin"+timestr

fd = os.open(grname,os.O_RDWR|os.O_CREAT)

    # Capture frame-by-frame
    ret, frame = cap.read()

    # Our operations on the frame come here
    gray = cv2.cvtColor(frame, cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY)

    for x in xrange(1, 12):  # zeilen anzahl und position 1 = start 2 =laenge (bei 640x480 ist das theoretisch 1, 479)
        for y in xrange(1, 18):  # scanrange 1 start 2 ende (zb fuer 640x480 ist das dann 1, 640)

                output = gray[x, y]
#               output = bin(gray[x ,y])[2:].zfill(8)
#               print bin(gray[x ,y])[2:].zfill(8)
                output = chr(output)
                os.write(fd, output)  

#               change to this to write down numbers:
#               output = str(output)
#               os.write(fd, output+';')

    # Display the resulting frame
    if cv2.waitKey(1) & 0xFF == ord('q'):

    #checking filesize > 2gb close file open new filename+timestamp    
    statinfo = os.stat(grname)
    b = statinfo.st_size
    b = ((b /1024)/1024)

    if b > 2000:
        timestr = time.strftime("%Y%m%d-%H%M%S")
        grname = "gr-random-bin"+timestr
        fd = os.open("gr-random-bin"+timestr,os.O_RDWR|os.O_CREAT)

# When everything done, release the capture
ghostradio linux entropy cryptoart


http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/manual/html_node/Random-Number-Distributions.html#Random-Number-Distributions linux crypto rng


$ gpg --output revocation-certificate.asc --gen-revoke 86C30530

§ gpg --import revocation-certificate.asc

$ gpg --list-keys 86C30530

gpg --send-keys 86C30530 crypto linux tools


"Ghostradio sounded suitably mysterious and dark" regine debatty ghostradio cryptoart


  als lib fuer quantenkino/ghostradio -> laut oliver laeuft die lib effizienter als imagemagick http://www.graphicsmagick.org/perl.html   linux tools


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashen_light https://voicerepublic.com/talks/prove-you-are-nonhuman-bffc6732-a8be-4501-a59c-b418cc22dabf this is the link to the super pannel at tm17: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PoqoAAJZAuc&feature=youtu.be&t=711 video https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franz_von_Gruithuisen He is also noted for the discovery of bright caps on the cusps of the crescent Venus, and for being the first to suggest that craters on the Moon were caused by meteorite impacts. He proposed that jungles on Venus grew more rapidly than in Brazil due to the proximity of the planet to the Sun, and that as a consequence the inhabitants celebrated fire festivals— the cause of the bright caps on Venus > first approach to extraterrestrial communication ( http://finnb.net/ finn brunton ) [image]     https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Gassendi Experimentell-naturwissenschaftliche Leistungen Fuer seine Theorie des Sehens unterstellte er atomistische „Effluxionen“, die Bilder vom Objekt zum +Betrachter transportieren. Zur Unterstuetzung seiner atomistischen Theorie unternahm er eine Reihe +von chemischen Experimenten, die Loesung bzw. Kristallisation von Salzen zum Gegenstand hatten. schleifenforscher: www.focus.de/wissen/natur/forschung-und-technik-das-ich-und150-eine-virtuelle-murmel_aid_26268+3.html ertel-notes: fehlertoleranz ist wichtiger als exaktheit . > wie bei den natuerlichen systemen syntetische intelligenz = ai --- tech. hades basiert auf http://www.firstfloor.org/~maex/dev/?p=1133 --- programming: das einfachste neuronale netz sieht so aus https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/McCulloch-Pitts-Zelle im prinzip haben wir das schon richtig verstanden, auch das mit der tendenz. die kuenstlichen neuronalen netze werden immer auf die anwendung hin gestaltet. und die nodes werden mit schwellwerten versehen, wie bei uns, wo wir sagen 2 graphen muessen eine node treffen usw. xor passt, ich muss mir das mit der mcCulloch zelle noch ueberlegen. - das ist auch interessant https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rekurrentes_neuronales_Netz man kann auch mit der auswertung ein kleines feedback bauen. einen lernprozess. indem ein graph auf seine node deutet. wenn zb (n)x eine node positiv war kann diese node immer wieder sich selbst positiv schalten und beneotigt dann nur mehr einen (oder(n)) graphen zur aktivierung anstatt der 2 oder (n). - allgemein https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C3%BCnstliches_neuronales_Netz - https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayessches_Netz - where is the noise? http://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004640 http://docplayer.org/2178102-1-kuenstliche-intelligenz.html http://docplayer.org/2178069-Softcomputing-kuenstliche-intelligenz-in-endlichen-zwei-personen-nullsummenspiele-mit-perfekter-information-michael-dorner-prof+-dr.html https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604087/the-dark-secret-at-the-heart-of-ai/ verknuepfungen: dante: virgilus morte (v.m.) (virtual machine) fargo: V.M. Varga (v.m.) (virtual machine) lesen: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franz_von_Gruithuisen https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Gassendi https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Shelley https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dante_Alighieri || https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dante_%28Netzwerkprotokoll%29 https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ren%C3%A9_Descartes https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Husserl techno: https://www.nachleucht.de/polyurethan-aussen/469-photolumineszierender-markierungslack-phu2k-in-spray.html gel: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gellan http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0023643803001166 naehrboden: http://www.pilzzucht.eu/Herstellen-von-Naehrboeden.html metalinks: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/ELIZA leuchtpigment: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luminova http://www.rctritec.com/de/nachleuchtpigmente/swiss-super-luminovar.html http://www.info-uhren.de/pdf/leuchtfarben/Super-LumiNova.pdf hades art neuralnetworks


[image] http://www.andregoncalves.info/ag_blog/?page_id=61 http://www.cooking-hacks.com/index.php/shop/arduino/pack-radiation-sensor-board-for-arduino-geiger-tube.html http://www.ebay.com/itm/1x-Russian-GEIGER-TUBE-COUNTER-SI-29BG-SBM-20-New-Box-/190723522117?pt=BI_Security_Fire_Protection&hash=item2c6801fe45 http://arduino.cc/en/Main/ArduinoBoardUno - - nur memo: http://www.libelium.com/wireless_sensor_networks_to_control_radiation_levels_geiger_counters/ - http://www.techlib.com/science/geiger.html vlf: http://www.techlib.com/electronics/vlfwhistle.htm http://www.vlf.it/easyloop/_easyloop.htm http://www.techlib.com/electronics/audioamps.html#curiously%20low%20noise http://nova.stanford.edu/~vlf/IHY_Test/TechDocs/AWESOMEDescriptionTalk/HardwareAWESOME.pdf physics tools radioactive vlf radio


http://www.soundman.de/ tools sound


In Infinity and the Mind, Rudy Rucker dangerous knowledge movie about the infinite in mathematics. https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xdoe8u book math movie


a king has infinite value (chess play) informationtheory


that place is so new its not on google maps



memo: den letzten transistor im setup 180grad herum einbauen, ergibt einen schoenen sound. tools radioactive


http://cognitive-ai.com/ joscha bach   www.taz.de/!5365752/ neuralnetworks internet notes


[l] Ein Leckerli fuer Kryptologen: Ein Paper mit dem Titel "Ron was wrong, Whit is right" :-) http://eprint.iacr.org/2012/064.pdf Ron ist Ron Rivest, Whit is Whitfield Diffie. In dem Paper haben einige Kryptologen mal das Internet nach RSA-Schluesseln durchsucht, einige Millionen eingesammelt, und geguckt, ob es da gemeinsame Primfaktoren in den Modulen gibt. More worrisome is that among the 4.7 million distinct 1024-bit RSA moduli that we had originally collected, more than 12500 have a single prime factor in common. [...] in our current collection of 7.1 million 1024-bit RSA moduli, almost 27000 are vulnerable and 2048-bit RSA moduli are affacted as well. Das ist ein sehr gruseliges Ergebnis. Ihre Schlussfolgerung ist, dass das Generieren von RSA-Schluesseln deutlich risikobehafteter ist als das Generieren von Schluesseln mit nur einer Komponente, wie bei ElGamal oder (EC)DSA. by fefe crypto


die steigerung der komplexitaet in der kryptoanalyse ist schoen anhand der unterschiedlichen chiffre methoden anzuzeigen. caesar->vigenere->onetimepad von der haeufigkeitsanalyse ueber die autokorrelation hin zur perfekten methode. dh geringe veraenderung bei mehr oder weniger der selben methodik, steigern die komplexitaet enorm. crypto


  linux audio: http://kokkinizita.linuxaudio.org/linuxaudio/index.html ambisonics http://kokkinizita.linuxaudio.org/ambisonics/index.html netpd http://www.netpd.org zita scope > 2 be developed linuxaudio


http://www.repairfaq.org/sam/laserfaq.htm#faqtoc   laser


http://libgen.rs/ http://gen.lib.rus.ec/ Imperial Library of Trantor @onion book


http://www.jasondavies.com/voynich/#f1r/0.653/0.456/1.65 http://sz-magazin.sueddeutsche.de/texte/anzeigen/39859     -> crypto blog: http://scienceblogs.de/klausis-krypto-kolumne/ crypto


http://robseward.com/misc/RNG2/ crypto rng


alles was die maschine ueber einen lernt, bedeutet ihr letztlich nichts (david foster wallace). _>auch ein guter kommentar zu singularitaet


in javascript und chrome, ein schoenes beispiel wie random nicht aussieht: [image] http://www.heise.de/newsticker/meldung/JavaScript-Engine-V8-Vorsicht-vor-Math-random-3010353.html crypto rng math


philosophischer fehler https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9oX2xFo7JA4 richtig und falsch greift nicht ((rauschen)teleologie) https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zufall_und_Notwendigkeit neuralnetworks notes


by erich berger [image] radioactive tools


[image] notes


https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transinformation https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negentropie entropy informationtheory


http://vimeo.com/49872335 http://wwwu.uni-klu.ac.at/gsuess/bewusstseinpsy/RonaldWeigl.htm http://derstandard.at/1326504254251/Umfrage-Zufaelle-sind-nicht-immer-rein-zufaellig?_artikelIndex=4 http://derstandard.at/1326504250904/Zufall-Wenn-der-Wuerfel-rollt ghostradio


https://www.quantamagazine.org/   https://iamtrask.github.io/2015/07/12/basic-python-network/   neuralnetworks


#linux #noise https://www.berrybase.at/raspberry-pi/raspberry-pi-computer/usb-geraete/usb-mini-mikrofon


db entry: instance of human 1 reference - "they are no inuit, they are not human" encouters of the passage, inuit meet the franklin explorers, cold blooded ghosts, they where starving - this numbers are nonhuman hades art nonhuman


http://www.noah.org/wiki/Random_Notes crypto rng entropy math




tools radioactive


http://duriansoftware.com/joe/An-intro-to-modern-OpenGL.-Chapter-1:-The-Graphics-Pipeline.html tutorial notes


group of current sota xenon dark matter dedectors http://www.physik.uzh.ch/groups/groupbaudis/darkmatter/ correlations to rng research with the statistic methods, m.c. for instance cross referencing via em space dark matter dedectors to a nice image of a ion engine (xenon) https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9e/Ion_Engine_Test_Firing_-_GPN-2000-000482.jpg http://forum.nasaspaceflight.com/index.php?topic=38577.920


some pics klick [image] [image] [image] [image] ghostradio


foreach (glob("*.txt") as $file){ $searchfor = $_GET["s"]; $contents = file_get_contents($file); $pattern = preg_quote($searchfor, '/'); $pattern = "/^.*$pattern.*\$/m"; if(preg_match_all($pattern, $contents, $matches)){ $file2 = substr($file, 0, -4); include($file); } } tools


http://www.joergresag.privat.t-online.de/mybk3htm/start3.htm physics


https://psc2015videos.projectbullrun.org/   why jonny cant encrypt: http://www.gaudior.net/alma/johnny.pdf crypto


http://www.math.uah.edu/stat/index.html   math


first code:
from pyo import *

n = 0
s = Server(duplex=1)


inp = Input(chnl=[0], mul=0.5) # chnl=[0,1] for stereo input
b = Thresh(inp, threshold=0.4, dir=0)
ti = Timer(b, b)

def printer():
        global n
        n = n + 1

        print 'trigger', n , 'time', str(ti.get(all)).strip('[]')

tf = TrigFunc(b, printer)

t = LinTable([(0,0), (50,1), (250,.3), (8191,0)])
env = TrigEnv(b, table=t, dur=.5, mul=.3)
sine = Sine(freq=400, mul=env).out()


first printouts with delta t between threshold triggers ( linear from an LFO ) trigger 1 time 0.0017687075305730104 trigger 2 time 0.0017687075305730104 trigger 3 time 0.01598639413714409 trigger 4 time 0.019999999552965164 trigger 5 time 0.0001360544265480712 trigger 6 time 0.0001360544265480712 trigger 7 time 0.014693877659738064 trigger 8 time 0.0056009069085121155 trigger 9 time 0.00018140589236281812 trigger 10 time 0.00018140589236281812 trigger 11 time 0.01984127052128315 trigger 12 time 0.005328798200935125 trigger 13 time 0.00018140589236281812 trigger 14 time 0.00018140589236281812 trigger 15 time 0.01807256229221821 trigger 16 time 0.019977323710918427 trigger 17 time 0.020022675395011902 trigger 18 time 0.019977323710918427 trigger 19 time 0.02013605460524559 trigger 20 time 4.535147309070453e-05 trigger 21 time 4.535147309070453e-05 trigger 22 time 0.014580498449504375 trigger 23 time 0.019977323710918427 trigger 24 time 6.80272132740356e-05 trigger 25 time 6.80272132740356e-05 trigger 26 time 0.019909296184778214 trigger 27 time 0.005351474042981863 trigger 28 time 0.014648525975644588 trigger 29 time 0.005056689493358135 trigger 30 time 0.014920635148882866 trigger 31 time 1.2613831758499146 trigger 32 time 0.004036281257867813 trigger 33 time 0.014943310990929604 trigger 34 time 0.020068027079105377 trigger 35 time 0.005215419456362724 trigger 36 time 0.014716553501784801 trigger 37 time 0.005374149885028601 trigger 38 time 0.01462585013359785 trigger 39 time 0.005374149885028601 trigger 40 time 0.01478458009660244 trigger 41 time 4.535147309070453e-05 trigger 42 time 4.535147309070453e-05 trigger 43 time 0.0052607711404562 trigger 44 time 0.014761905185878277 trigger 45 time 0.019909296184778214 trigger 46 time 0.019977323710918427 trigger 47 time 0.005238095298409462 trigger 48 time 0.014761905185878277 trigger 49 time 0.00528344651684165 trigger 50 time 0.01473922934383154 trigger 51 time 0.005328798200935125 trigger 52 time 0.014671201817691326 trigger 53 time 6.80272132740356e-05 trigger 54 time 6.80272132740356e-05 linux linuxaudio tools


schaut ganz brauchbar aus die pydsp. lac.linuxaudio.org/2011/papers/40.pdf linux linuxaudio tools


ultra-low-light-dedection www.youtube.com/watch?v=25QBPaQftk8 > die wellenjaeger, a movie about german gravitation scientists lowering the noise of the sota photone sensors.   http://www.ndt.net/article/dgzfp04/papers/v60/v60.htm ++ http://www.quantenphysik-schule.de/dokumente/JuFoPhoton.pdf http://www.sensl.com/downloads/irp/2012_Li_SPM_Detection_Low_Level_Bioluminescence_Development_Deployable_Whole_cell_biosensors.pdf photodiode sensor > not usable [image] http://www.elektronik-labor.de/Projekte/Alpha.html https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pin-Diode http://www.b-kainka.de/bastel131.html +avalanche photo diodes http://risorse.dei.polimi.it/spad/1996/App%20Opt%201996.pdf http://home.deib.polimi.it/cova/elet/Articoli%20e%20presentazioni/2013SPADlab_SSN.pdf https://www.osapublishing.org/oe/fulltext.cfm?uri=oe-18-16-17448&id=204545 +smpd and electronics http://www.roithner-laser.com/pd_electronics.html http://www.roithner-laser.com/pd_avalanche.html http://www.lasercomponents.com/us/news/sap500-silicon-apds-for-photon-counting-applications-1/ http://www.hamamatsu.com/eu/en/index.html [image] photomultiplier: m-h7828e PMT_modules_TPMO0008E02 photon counting principles: http://users.df.uba.ar/bragas/Labo5_1er2011/PMT_photoncounting.pdf PMT_photoncounting + physicsopenlab.org/2016/03/03/light-as-particles/ PhotonCounter_ENG tools hades physics particlephysics


https:// www.quantamagazine.org/20160802-unified_theory_of_randomness/ entropy noise


  http://qrng.anu.edu.au/index.php paper: http://arxiv.org/pdf/1107.4438v1.pdf   physics particlephysics math rng crypto noise


#/bin/bash index=0; for name in *.jpg do mv "${name}" "${index}.jpg" index=$((index+1)) done #linux #remameseq


this is essential http://noosphere.princeton.edu/ http://www.freewebs.com/pmutaf/iwrandom.html rng informationtheory


http://www0.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/d.jones/GoodPracticeRNG.pdf rule 1, do not use systemgenerators rule 2, use a good rng and build it into your code rule 3, properly seed your generator rng informationtheory


http://www.entropykey.co.uk/ http://www.letech.jpn.com/rng/demo_video_e.html http://www.protego.se/ http://www.true-random.com/startseite-deutsch.html http://www.stat.fsu.edu/pub/diehard/ theorie: http://www.true-random.com/exor.pdf --> das ist auch interessant fuer den crypto workshop -> vortrag http://ftp.ccc.de/congress/21c3/video/049%20Zufallszahlengeneratoren.mp4 rng informationtheory


http://gnuradio.org/redmine/projects/gnuradio/wiki/InstallingGR http://sdr.osmocom.org/trac/wiki/rtl-sdr http://www.rtlsdr.org/ http://www.oz9aec.net/index.php/gnu-radio/gqrx-sdr http://www.superkuh.com/rtlsdr.html ----bugs/hacks http://mono-for-android.1047100.n5.nabble.com/Some-sln-files-opening-as-hex-td5688360.html   --satelite images http://www.oz9aec.net/index.php/gnu-radio/gnu-radio-blog/451-howto-receive-and-decode-noaa-apt-images-with-funcube-dongle-and-gqrx   --radar http://www.virtualradarserver.co.uk/Download.aspx http://www.rtl-sdr.com/adsb-aircraft-radar-with-rtl-sdr/ softwaredefinedradio funk


nice pd patch, works very well http://kiilo.org/tiki/tiki-index.php?page=Arduino-PureData-MessageSystem ArduinoPuredataMessageSystem (->localcopy) linuxaudio tools


Nate Silver

The Signal and the Noise: The Art and Science of Prediction

noise math entropy


https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonolumineszenz thx sooshee http://www.rapp-instruments.de/Acustics/SBL/SBL.htm   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Jenny_%28cymatics%29 thx didi hades


entkoppelte rec die schwaechere verteilung kommt vtml vom falschen strom. 9v batterieblock anstatt 12v [image] [image] --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- [image] [image] [image] schoener stromnetz ausschlag, muss man entkoppelt nochmal rekorden rng





http://www.suzannetreister.net/HFT_TheGardener/Photos/HFT_VPh_01.html underinfluence art



underinfluence art


watch -n .1 cat /proc/sys/kernel/random/entropy_avail
rng entropy linux


techno sapiens notes


  hyperNormalisation . a movie by adam curties notes


forensic fantasies - by aileen notes


http://www.phy.duke.edu/~rgb/General/dieharder.php rng linux entropy


possible future investigation# http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thing_%28listening_device%29   post from d.offenhuber.


aus dem buch von simon singh >> bei der beurteilung der sicherheit des kryptosystems wird davon ausgegangen, dass der feind die maschine (die funktion kennt) zur verfuegung hat. << >> die staerke der verschluesselung haengt nicht davon ab, ob die maschine ( der funktion ) selbst geheim bleibt, sondern von der geheimhaltung der schluessel << crypto


ein workshop zur geschichte der kryptographie, anhand des buches von friedrich l. bauer * und simon singh**.

die einfuehrung beginnt bei den begrifflichkeiten ueber text und code, schluessel und verschluesselung, sprache als interpretation von zeichen(-ketten) und geht weiter in die ersten verschluesselungs techniken, bis hin zu einem erklaerungsversuch von asymetrischer verschluesselung und quantenmechanischen ansaetzen.

der erste praktische teil beschaeftigt sich mit einfachen verschluesselungsverfahren die man zb zum schreiben und "verschluesseln" von urlaubspostkarten einsetzen kann. und soll das grundlegende werkzeug erklaeren. der zweite teil behandelt die gegenwaertigen digitalen verfahren zur abhoersicheren kommunikation mittels pgp.

*friedrich l. bauer: Entzifferte Geheimnisse: Methoden und Maximen der Kryptologie

**simon singh: Geheime Botschaften. Die Kunst der Verschluesselung von der Antike bis in die Zeiten des Internet

[image] [image]

entschluesselungs code fuer eine monosubstitutions chiffre von oliver frommel:

maex@sis:~/crypto$ more dechiffer.py
alphabet = "".join([chr(x+65) for x in range(26)])
plaintext = ""
for c in cryptotext:
        plaintext += alphabet[key.find(c)]
print plaintext


teil 2 von peter wagenhuber



die erste kryptoanalyse:

die erste erhaltene postkarte mit caesar chiffre, die als schoenes fallbeispiel fuer die haeufigkeitsanalyse verwendet wird. / von the six
die buchstaben haeufigkeitsverteilung in einem laengeren deutschen text (source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/de/0/0e/Alphabet_haufigkeit.svg)
die buchstaben haeufigkeitsverteilung der postkarte von theSix
der code:

maex@sis:~/crypto$ more charakter_count.sh


> result.file

for char in `cat $alphabet`
#               echo $char
                counter=`awk -F [$char] 'NF>1{t+=NF-1}END{print t}' jogikarte.text`
                if [ "$counter" = "" ] ; then
                echo $counter $char >> result.file

exit 0;


maex@sis:~/crypto$ more result.file
9 A
6 B
4 C
2 D
1 E
0 F
3 G
27 H
6 I
1 J
4 K
6 L
30 M
1 N
4 O
5 P
13 Q
1 R
2 S
5 T
2 U
12 V
2 W
1 X
0 Y
8 Z

maex@sis:~/crypto$ more plot_graph.sh
#!/usr/bin/gnuplot -persist
set terminal png nocrop font small size 640,480
set output 'verteilung.png'
set style data histograms
set title "alphabetische verteilung"
#set xlabel "a-z"
set ylabel "anzahl"
plot "result.file" using 1:xticlabels(2)

das chiffre der postkarte war ein thesix modifiziertes caesar model mit leerzeichen und daher auch halbwegs zeitaufwendig zu knacken.

das chiffre:

der schluessel:

der buchstabe H war im alphabet als leerzeichen definiert und das alphabet ist 27 zeichen lang, daher auch der ausschlag von H in der haeufigkeitsanalyse, wo man anfaenglich nicht weiss wie das zu interepretieren ist, und sich das alphabet staendig verschiebt aufgrund der buchstabendifferenz von 1. entschluesselt wurde es anschl rein auf interpretation der nachricht und auslassen einiger zeichen zb H, nachdem sich ziemlich schnell herausgestellt hat das M eindeutig E repraesentiert usw.

die verteilung der gleichen nachricht mit einer klassischen caesar chiffre schaut dann so aus und ist auch viel eindeutiger:

das chiffre:


der schluessel:
der analyse schreibtisch :)

ein gutes uebungswerkzeug zum erkennen von textmustern ist das wordomat spiel: [image]



die zweite karte [image] - - - - -

- http://hairywhale.awardspace.co.uk/hairyworld/work/tech4multimedia/polyalphabeticSol.html - erstes muster: YAFKNYAF in zeile 9 die entfernung betraegt 5 zeichen, dh das keywort kann 5 zeichen lang sein. - zweites muster YAFAVDNWJIJPYTMRXNITBIBOPWVWVMKLELAYAF mehrere zeilen die entfernung betraegt 35 zeichen, das bestaerkt die erste vermutung von einem 5zeichen keywort 35:7=5 - drittes muster MRXVOXVIEXLQHXFRIJCWYJJYAFKNYAFAVDNWJIJPYTMRX die entfernung betraegt 42 zeichen, da passt 5 nicht rein, 6 schon 6 x 7 - viertes muster IIZCLMRXVOXVIEXLQHXFRIJCWYJJYAFKNYAFAVDNWJIJPYTMRXNITBIBOPWVWVMKLELAYAFIDAYDKIEZCFHERMGWLIIZ = 89, eine primzahl :) , kein muster - fuenftes muster SVVSTCQSKOFXBWFMEQIJTIIZCLMRXVOXVIEXLQHXFRIJCWYJJYAFKNYAFAVDNWJIJPYTMRXNITBIBOPWVWVMKLELAYAFIDAYDKIEZCFHERMGWLIIZHLXIIINNGQBMCKLECGEDSVV = 133 , muster 7 x 19 - sechstes muster MRXVOXVIEXLQHXFRIJCWYJJYAFKNYAFAVDNWJIJPYTMR = 42 , muster 6 x 7 (nur 2er kombination) - - wesentlich einfacher und genauer als die hier angewendete Kasiski examination, ist die autokorrelation die kommt auf ein eindeutiges ergebnis von 6. - - - autokorrelation beschreibung: http://www.hsg-kl.de/faecher/inf/krypto/poly/index.php - das hier abgebildete vigenere chiffre ist zu muehsam haendisch zu knacken, wir steigen um auf informationstechnologie. der naechster schritt, ist die autokorrelation zu scripten. - - nicht so einfach, das resultat der keylaenge mittels dem hsg.kl.de python scripts das ergebnis: maex@sis:~/crypto/karte2$ python keylength.py [1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 7, 7, 8, 8, 10, 10] -> wir wissen es ist ein 6 zeichen langes keyword, vom cryptotool, dh 6 und 3 sind relevant. mehr lesen, besser verstehen - crypto -


wieder einer: http://www.openshot.org/download/ linux tools


Ferritantenne fuer Sfericsempfang LFM/S1-N



best vlf connector so far,..

vlf radio


eine gute vorlesung vom herbert im br-uk

sound notes


deep state notes


http://websdr.ewi.utwente.nl:8901/   8422.00   9240.02 softwaredefinedradio


ab ueber houllebecq http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Die_Welt_als_Supermarkt h. p. lovecraft entdeckt. houllebecq schreibt immer wieder ueber quantenmechanik und wie sie die welt (des denkens) veraendert hat und zwar im sinne einer komplementaritaet: welle/teilchen position/geschwindigkeit individuum/geschichte das pathetische/das klinische lese im moment von lovecraft Berge des Wahnsinns: Der Atheist Lovecraft bietet dem Leser einen rationalen Blickwinkel auf die in seinem fr�heren Werk �bernat�rlich scheinenden ?Gro�en Alten?. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berge_des_Wahnsinns was die "grossen alten" betrifft gibt es eine schoene passage, die literarisch zum thema ghost passt: "Man glaubt nur nicht, der Mensch sei der �lteste oder der letzte Weltbeherrscher, oder Leben und Substanz k�nnten aus sich selbst bestehen. Die Alten waren, die Alten sind und die Alten werden sein. Nicht in den R�umen, die uns bekannt sind, sondern zwischen ihnen gehen sie gelassen und unbeirrt umher, ohne Dimension und f�r unsere Augen unsichtbar." (houllebecq, gegen die welt, gegen das leben, seite 105) hades


mem: xterm -fn 9x15 -fg yellow -bg black -sl 512 -maximized -u8   fullscreen geht auch xterm -fullscreen und fullscr und execute xterm -fullscreen -e ./xyz.sh         // opt. -hold linux tools


.Xresources !xterm colors xterm*foreground: #dcdccc xterm*background: #1f1f1f xterm*cursorColor: orange xterm*color0: #151515 xterm*color8: #505450 xterm*color1: #bf7979 xterm*color9: #f4a45f xterm*color2: #97b26b xterm*color10: #c5f779 xterm*color3: #cdcda1 xterm*color11: #ffffaf xterm*color4: #4a5463 xterm*color12: #7d8794 xterm*color5: #9c3885 xterm*color13: #e628ba xterm*color6: #88aadd xterm*color14: #99ccff xterm*color7: #ffffff xterm*color15: #dedede !xterm settings xterm*dynamicColors: true xterm*utf8: 2 xterm*eightBitInput: true xterm*scrollTtyKeypress:true xterm*scrollTtyOutput: false xterm*scrollBar: false xterm*loginShell: true xterm*jumpScroll: true xterm*multiScroll: true xterm*toolBar: false xterm*charClass: 33:48,35-38:48,39:43,42-47:48,58-59:48,61:48,63-64:48,126:48 xterm*geometry: 125x43+0+0 xterm*faceName: Monospace xterm*faceSize: 12 xterm*saveLines: 1000 #linux #xterm


/bin/sh -c "exec xterm -fa 'Monospace' -bg '#1f1f1f' -fg '#dcdccc' -fs 12 -sl 512 -u8 -geometry 125x43+0+0" #linux #xterm


http://www.spektrum.de/news/ohne-zufall-gibt-es-keine-freiheit/1168814 #entropy